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The sensor calibration methods used and the resulting attitude determination accuracy achieved with this system is discussed in Chapter 6 kingston hospital pain treatment center aspirin 100pills without prescription. In this chapter midwest pain treatment center wausau order aspirin 100 pills on-line, we present a method for attitude-independent advanced pain treatment center ohio buy generic aspirin 100pills, on-orbit magnetometer calibration that mitigates the effect of time-varying magnetic fields produced by electronics on-board a spacecraft active pain treatment knoxville tn best aspirin 100 pills. This method is attitude-independent in the sense that it neither requires attitude knowledge nor estimates attitude during the calibration process. The calibration significantly increases the accuracy of measurements from magnetometers embedded within a satellite, enabling them to make accurate measurements of the geomagnetic field without imposing location constraints on the sensor. Additionally, since the calibration requires only on-orbit data, it mitigates the need for pre-flight calibration. In this work, calibration was motivated by improved magnetometer-based attitude determination on satellites, but the calibration is applicable to other magnetometer-based sensing systems on a variety of platforms, such as air-, ground-, or water-based vehicles [38]. The purpose of calibration is to quantify the statistical properties of the magnetometer errors [39, 40]. Magnetometers are subject to both constant and time-varying errors, including errors caused by hard iron, soft iron, null shift, scale factors, non-orthogonality, and nearby electronics. Various algorithms exist to estimate the time-invariant errors, which are captured by three general error types: bias, scale factors, and non-orthogonality. The first step is a centering approximation to provide an initial estimate of the calibration parameters, and the second step is a Gauss-Newton method to iteratively refine the parameters. In similar work, [44] utilizes a geometric approach to formulate the problem of compensating for magnetometer errors by estimating parameters lying on an ellipsoid. A simpler method that utilizes least-squares minimization to estimate bias, scale factors, and non-orthogonality is developed in [45, 46]. Realtime implementations of [43] using non-linear Kalman filtering techniques are developed in [47]. The above calibration techniques are attitude-independent, meaning no attitude knowledge is required for the calibration. This is critical when magnetometers are used to estimate attitude, and thus attitude measurements are not available before calibration. The sensor calibration is typically carried out in a coordinate system attached to the magnetometer. However, the calibration methods presented in [44] and [49], an extension of [46], include an additional step to estimate the alignment of the magnetometer relative to the vehicle body frame. The existing algorithms have been shown to work well in compensating for constant sources of magnetometer error [43, 44, 46]. In practice, the time-varying bias caused by nearby electronics can result in additional magnetometer errors. Traditionally, this bias is mitigated by either using a boom to physically separate the magnetometer from the spacecraft, or by using design and manufacturing practices to minimize the effect of electronic components (for example, [50]). These design practices increase the satellite development time and cost, and with the trend toward smaller spacecraft with reduced development times and costs, it may be impossible to physically separate a magnetometer from other spacecraft electronics. The original contribution of this work is an attitude-independent, on-orbit method to estimate magnetometer bias caused by nearby electronics. In particular, the work of Foster and Elkaim [46] is expanded to include time-varying bias in the calibration. This is accomplished by including measurements of spacecraft electric currents in the sensor model and estimating constant parameters that map time-varying current to magnetometer bias. In similar work, Kim et al [51] estimate the bias resulting from a magnetic torque coil by 27 expanding the model of [43] to include the magnetic dipole moment produced by the torque coil. Our method is more general in that the bias caused by any electronic component can be estimated. The current measurements used in the calibration are typically already part of spacecraft health monitoring, so no additional sensors are needed.

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Laboratory animals may be potential sources of hazardous chemical exposure from metabolic products pain management for dying dog cheap 100 pills aspirin amex, wastes pain treatment center london ky generic aspirin 100pills otc, cage litter sacroiliac pain treatment uk cheap aspirin 100pills, and contaminated cages iasp neuropathic pain treatment guidelines discount aspirin 100pills online. The preparation of food and water containing toxic substances under investigation shall be done with all precautions ordinarily taken to protect the health and safety of personnel. Precautions in administration of toxic substances, aerosol suppression, personal protection, and waste disposal shall be taken. The form shall be completed before the principal investigator relinquishes possession of the vacated laboratory. Disposition of all unwanted chemicals is the responsibility of the principal investigator. The department of record is responsible for the safe and lawful cleanup and disposition of all chemicals and biological materials that are abandoned. All biological materials shall be autoclaved or chemically disinfected and disposed of before the laboratory is vacated. Surfaces and equipment potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals or biological agents shall be decontaminated before the laboratory is vacated. The principal investigator/supervisor is responsible for ensuring that the equipment is properly decontaminated. Accessible surfaces (chemical fume hoods, sinks, benchtops) should be cleaned, when practical, by the principal investigator and staff. If this is not possible, an outside contractor specializing in the industrial testing and cleaning of contaminated laboratory equipment should be contacted. The principal investigator shall provide the contractor with thorough and accurate information pertaining to the past uses of the equipment. The material to be shipped shall be properly packaged in accordance with all applicable regulations, and appropriate shipping papers shall be provided, see Hazardous Material Shipping Guidelines. Children are likely to have a limited understanding of these hazards, and should be kept away from areas where known hazardous conditions exist. Penn State University prohibits children under the age of 16 from entering areas where known or suspected laboratory hazards exist. High school students that wish to work in Penn State laboratories must provide parental consent and insurance documentation to the University on the paperwork available here. Because the general air supply is not adequate for manipulating hazardous materials in the open, volatile or toxic chemicals shall be handled in a chemical fume hood or other appropriate containment device. Laboratory ventilation shall change the air at least six times per hour, depending on the nature of the laboratory work. Air diffusers or grilles shall be so designed and located as to direct the air over the laboratory personnel and sweep the contaminated air away from their breathing zone. To promote uniform distribution and mixing of air in large laboratories, the supply registers shall deliver the air in all directions, at a typical velocity of 20 linear feet per minute. The hood shall be cleared of toxic materials and properly decontaminated before the work begins. In conjunction with sound laboratory techniques, a chemical fume hood serves as an effective means for capturing toxic, carcinogenic, offensive, or flammable vapors or other airborne contaminants that would otherwise enter the general laboratory atmosphere. With the sash lowered, the fume hood also forms a physical barrier to protect workers from hazards such as chemical splashes or sprays, fires, and minor explosions. Fume hoods may also provide effective containment for accidental spills of chemicals, although this is not their primary purpose. Additions, such as shelving; tampering with or changing damper settings; or any other alterations to the chemical fume hood structure may reduce their performance and is prohibited. Volatile and odorous chemicals and highly toxic gases shall be stored in ventilated cabinets. Storing chemical containers and equipment in a hood impairs the performance of the hood. Hoods are backup safety devices to protect against toxic vapors or dusts if an accident occurs or if the design of an experiment fails. Apparatus in hoods shall be fitted with traps, condensers, or scrubbers to remove toxic fumes, gases, vapors, or dusts before venting to the atmosphere. This practice can reduce vapor concentrations at the hood face by about 90 percent.

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