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The idea for this approach with this specific group of children is that it targets the underlying difficulty in processing speech rheumatoid arthritis remission diet cheap voltaren 50 mg online, rather than just trying to arthritis on neck natural remedies voltaren 100 mg for sale change mistakes children make in how they say particular words and sounds arthritis feet burning cheap 100 mg voltaren with amex. The ultimate goal is for clear speech through consistent use of at least 70 target words arthritis ear voltaren 50 mg on-line. Core vocabulary achieves this through teaching children how to put together individual sounds in order to Target group Speech Language Communication Complex needs Age range Preschool Primary Secondary Focus of intervention Universal Targeted Specialist Delivered by Specialist Teacher Assistant Other 19 make a word. As children become more consistent in doing this, they often improve in how accurately they can say the words. However, where this is not the case, a second intervention approach targeting consistent speech errors may be needed. Delivery Intervention begins with the selection of 70 words that the child would use a lot and would be powerful in supporting their communication. Ten words are selected at random from this list each week and practiced in twice-weekly half hour sessions, plus daily practice from care-givers, for eight weeks. Words are taught sound-by-sound using techniques such as syllable segmentation, (breaking up words into syllables) imitation and cued speech (see #7). As children with inconsistent speech disorder are often able to imitate all speech sounds, they should be able to say the words correctly. Where this is not the case, children are encouraged to give their best possible production for each word. Games are then used to practice the best production for each of the ten words and explicit feedback is given to the child on their production in these games and in spontaneous speech. At the end of the second session each week, the child is asked to produce each of the ten target words three times. Words which are produced consistently are then removed from the list and ten new words selected from those that remain on the list of inconsistent words. Level of evidence Core Vocabulary has been investigated in case studies (Dodd & Bradford, 2000; Dodd & Iacano, 1989; Holm & Dodd, 1999, 2001; McIntosh & Dodd, 2008), one quasi-experimental group study (Crosbie, Holm & Dodd, 2005) and a randomised controlled study (Broomfield & Dodd, 2005). The group study used an alternating treatments design to compare two different approaches (phonological contrast and core vocabulary) on 18 children with speech sound disorder. Core vocabulary resulted in greater change in the Format Manual Approach Technique Evidence rating Strong Moderate Indicative 20 ten out of the 18 children who had inconsistent speech disorder compared to phonological contrast therapy. They were randomly allocated to either a treatment (Core Vocabulary) or no treatment group. Following intervention, the children who had received the core vocabulary intervention performed better on re-assessment than the children who had received no intervention. A comparison of three therapy methods for children with different types of developmental phonological disorders. Phonological disorders in children: Changes in phonological process use during treatment. Cued speech is a system of hand shapes and hand positions used in combination with lip shapes to show all the different speech sounds (phonemes of speech). These hand positions and shapes are used by the speaker as they speak to illustrate the sounds of each word. It has been adapted into a number of languages and can be used alongside British Sign Language. Since the introduction of cochlear implants it has also been used to help children with cochlear implants to recognise the difference between speech sounds (speech perception). Cued speech has also been used with children who have difficulties making different speech sounds (articulation difficulties). However, this should not be confused with a number of other techniques used to visually help children work out where to put their tongue, lips etc when trying to make specific speech sounds (eg. Twenty hours is considered the average amount of time needed to learn cued speech although familiarity and experience of using cued speech enables greater fluency and speed. Parents who are planning to use cued speech are advised to use it from as early as possible with a baby who is deaf and to use it in naturally occurring conversations and play with their developing child. This research is mainly at the level of case studies and case series and small group comparative studies. For example, Nicholls & McGill (1982) worked with 18 children with profound hearing impairment who had been using cued speech for a number of years and compared their speech reception accuracy under various conditions including with and without cued speech. Accuracy when using cued speech in combination with lipreading was significantly better than conditions using listening alone or listening and lipreading.
RuNet (the colloquial name for the Russian-speaking Internet) arthritis relief for back pain proven voltaren 100mg, for example arthritis pain cream cheap voltaren 100 mg with amex, heavily relies on "communities arthritis in the knee what to do purchase voltaren 50mg online," which are somewhat akin to arthritis in cats back legs symptoms order voltaren 50 mg Facebook groups, and those are run by dedicated moderators. Most of the socially relevant online activism in Russia happens on just one platform, LiveJournal. Formally, though, nothing has been blocked; this is the kind of invisible censorship that is most difficult to fight. The more intermediaries-whether human or corporate-are involved in publishing and disseminating a particular piece of information, the more points of control exist for quietly removing or altering that information. Someone still has to provide access to the Internet, host a blog or a website, moderate an online community, or even make that community visible in search engines. As long as all those entities have to be tied to a nation state, there will be ways to pressure them into accepting and facilitating highly customized censorship that will have no impact on economic growth. This allows the Saudi government to achieve a certain efficiency in the censorship process. The most interesting part about the Saudi censorship scheme is that it at least informs the user why a website has been blocked; many other countries simply show a bland message like "the page cannot be displayed," making it impossible to discern whether the site is blocked or simply unavailable because of some technical glitches. In the Saudi case, banned porn websites carry a message that explains in detail the reasons for the ban, referencing a Duke Law Journal article on pornography written by the American legal scholar Cass Sunstein and a 1,960-page study conducted by the U. Both the British and the French authorities have similar schemes for their citizens to report child pornography and several other kinds of illegal content. When it was first introduced in early 2010, there was also a considerable spike in those searching for pornography. Who knows how many of the reported videos have first been downloaded and saved to local hard drives? More important, how many pages containing nonsexual content could be found and dealt with in such a manner? Tech-savvy groups of individuals loyal to a particular cause or national government will harness their networks to censor their opponents, usually by dismantling their groups on social networking sites. This pro-Israel advocacy group made headlines by compiling lists of anti-Israeli Facebook groups, infiltrating them to become their administrators, and ultimately disabling them. One of its most remarkable accomplishments was deleting nearly 110,000 members from a 118,000-strong Arabiclanguage group sympathetic to Hezbollah. The online social capital that took months to develop goes to waste in a matter of hours. Thus modern censorship will increasingly go beyond just blocking access to particular content and aim to erode and destroy entire online communities instead. Denial-of-Philosophy If philosophy is your passion, Saudi Arabia would not top your list of places to spend a year abroad. Perhaps because the discipline encourages independent thinking and questioning of authority (or simply aggravates the problem of unemployment), the subject is banned at universities, and so are philosophy books. Explaining his resistance to the introduction of philosophy as a subject in the Saudi high school curriculum, the director of planning at the Jeddah Educational Administration noted in 106 the Net Delusion December 2005 that "philosophy is a subject derived from the Greeks and the Romans. We do not need this kind of philosophy because the Holy Quran is rich in Islamic philosophy. And their hopes were not in vain: the Internet quickly filled the void, with nearly free and easy access to philosophy books, video lectures, and scholarly magazines. The site enjoyed tremendous success; in just a few months, the site branched out beyond philosophy, with its users discussing Middle East politics and controversial social issues (since the site was in Arabic, non-Saudi users frequented it as well). At its peak, the site had more than 12,000 active members, who contributed an average of 1,000 posts a day. Before long, the Saudi government noticed the phenomenal success of Tomaar and quickly banned all Saudi users from accessing the site. In the last decade or so, plenty of tools had emerged to circumvent such government bans; their creation was fueled mostly by the excessive censorship of the Chinese authorities. Shortly thereafter the website became inaccessible to even those users who relied on censorship-circumvention tools. It appeared that the site was enjoying such popularity that it was simply overloaded with Internet traffic. The American company that hosted Tomaar wrote the site administrators to inform them that it was terminating their contract, making the site a "digital refugee. It took some time before it became clear that Tomaar was a target of a protracted cyber-attack that aimed to make the website unavailable.
Merit Systems Protection Board Preventing and Addressing Sexual Harassment in the Federal Workplace Ashlea Klahr Director easing arthritis in dogs purchase voltaren 50 mg line, Center for Health and Resilience Research pictures of early arthritis in fingers voltaren 100mg low price, Office of People Analytics polyarthritis in dogs buy cheap voltaren 100 mg, Office of People Analytics cure arthritis with diet generic voltaren 100 mg mastercard, Department of Defense Workplace and Gender Relations Research within the Department of Defense 8:00 a. Manoharan Associate Professor, University of Massachusetts-Boston Heidi Jane Smith Professor, Universidad Iberoamericana George Vernardakis Professor, Middle Tennessee State University 8:00 a. Kenneth Meier Distinguished Scholar in Residence, American University Citizen Participation in Public Service Delivery: the Role of Citizen Participation in Promoting Social Equity Mysungsuk Lee Professor, SungKyunKwan University Measuring Collaborative Governance: A Case Study of Social Coordination for Organ Transplantation in South Korea and Collaborative Governance, Clichй or Abstruse? Brittany Keegan Doctoral Student, Virginia Commonwealth University Preparing Students for Client-Centered Service Learning L. Pathways Initiative Najmah Thomas Professor, University of South Carolina-Beaufort Stemming Stereotype Threat: Recruitment, Retention and Degree Attainment for Undergraduates from Underrepresented Backgrounds (continued) Hong-Cheng Liu Chair and Professor, I-Shou University the Roles and Functions of Technology on the Building of Safe and Resilient Community: the Case of Smart Policing Chun-yuan Wang Associate Professor, Central Police University the Roles and Functions of Technology on the Building of Safe and Resilient Community: the Case of Smart Policing 9:30 a. Alesha Doan Associate Professor, University of Kansas Gender Integration in Special Forces: An Exploration of Coded Language as a Form of Institutional Resistance to Change Shahidul Hassan Associate Professor, Ohio State University Mitigating the Unintended Effects of Diversity in Public Organizations: Can We Make People Like Each Other? Kenneth Kriz to our faculty as a Distinguished Professor of Public Administration. Kriz is a nationally-recognized scholar in the field of Public Finance, with areas of research in municipal debt policy and management, public pension fund management, public financial risk management, and economic development finance. Kriz has consulted with several states, cities, and nonprofit organizations, and has served on the board of trustees for numerous pension funds. Kriz has published more than 40 peer-reviewed academic journal articles and book chapters, has published a textbook on quantitative methods, edited a forthcoming book on tax increment finance, and been a Fulbright Scholar and Fulbright Senior Specialist. Conference Content Leads Global Public Administration Rich Callahan Marilyn Rubin Infrastructure John Kirlin Wendy Haynes Public Finance Judy England-Joseph Public Service Judy England-Joseph Social Equity Susan T. 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That is arthritis treatment heat or cold safe 100 mg voltaren, it would include profit oriented companies rheumatoid arthritis reddit order 50mg voltaren free shipping, in which these companies share surpluses and benefits with members (and/or with the community in general) in a collective ownership structure (for example arthritis pain relief finger joints discount voltaren 50mg on-line, a cooperative) arthritis symptoms hands diet cheap voltaren 100 mg on-line. This definition would not include non-profit and voluntary organizations that rely entirely on donations or grants (although some include such organizations in their definitions of the social economy). A similar definition describes the social economy as collectively owned companies (cooperatives, non-profit and mutual organizations) that use market-oriented production and the sale of goods or services to develop a social mission (Neamtan & Anderson, 2010). The social economy is essentially made up of voluntary, non-profit and cooperative sectors that are formally independent from the state. Its activities are aimed at achieving objectives that transcend the rules of the economic sector and, in this sense, "the social economy must logically be considered as a third sector" (Browne, 1997, p. Still in terms of terminology, it should be noted that "non-profit sector and voluntary sector are designations used as synonyms for the tertiary sector" (Lorendahl, 1997, p. The sector, therefore, presents itself as a field of action distinct from the private sector, whose objective is profit, and the State, however, should be defined and analyzed as it interrelates with these two. Currently the social economy represents a wide range of initiatives and organizational forms that generate what some authors define as a hybrid market (hybridization of the market) - given that the social economy "is not limited to the market but includes principles of redistribution and reciprocity" as argued by Laville (1994, p. However, development, initiatives, entrepreneurship, innovation and the markets themselves (including finance) evolve very quickly, as well as the intersection between them, creating greater complexity but also more opportunities. An inclusive view of activities related to the social economy will also allow us to analyze how the new currents of business management that do not define profit as a priority in their development strategies and policies, but intend to put human and sustainability factors at the top of these policies can create new opportunities and dynamics in a sector with high global recognition. As Pereira points out, "the social economy has gained great recognition within the global economy, with the social investment market creating innovative dynamics" (Pereira, 2016). Social sector organizations have the ability to impact nations economically, environmentally and socially, solving the most sensitive problems through the supply of their innovative services and products. However, in order to present effective, efficient, innovative and quality services in response to their objectives, they need to have sufficient and sustainable funding (Sauti, 2019). Figure 1 represents the overview of the financing of social sector organizations: Figure 1: Overview of the financing of social sector organizations Source: the Future of Funding for Social Enterprises. At the same time, the sector also presents great opportunities for future development. According to the Monitor Institute 2009 report, despite the numerous challenges faced by the sector, there are a number of opportunities that allow for an optimistic perspective, namely (Monitor, 2009): a) Increased interest on the part of capital providers; b) Greater recognition of the need for effective solutions to social and environmental challenges; c) the constant record of successes obtained with new instruments so far; d) A set of new talents interested in the sector; e) Creation of new sources of financing for social businesses. These five opportunities represent, according to Chong and Kleeman (2001) good reasons to be optimistic about the future financing of social organizations (Chong & Kleemann, 2011, p. At the same time that profit oriented investments aimed at generating social and environmental good are being transferred from activist investors to the core of the main financial institutions (Monitor, 2009). In short, it is important to highlight, on the one hand, the inclusive view of the social economy and, on the other hand, the real need for the social economy to find new forms of financing. In order to better understand the context in which the impact economy emerges, it is important to go back a little in time and review some historical landmarks, understand the main characteristics as well as the perspectives of several specialists. The Industrial Revolution is considered one of the most important developments in human history; the transition from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy radically changed the way people lived and worked, created new markets, created organic demand and provided exponential growth. That is why industrialization is considered to have triggered the first consistent and sustained increase in the average standard of living. However, this development was not uniform and had also many negative consequences. In recent decades, technological advances, particularly in technology and information technology, have created a knowledge economy that capitalizes on the intellectual production of the employees. Since the beginning of this millennium, globalization has taken on unprecedented significance, increasing the interdependence of global economies. Multinational companies exist in greater quantity than at any other time in history. International cooperation facilitates the increase in the movement of people, goods and services across borders, according to information collected on the websites 629 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development Porto, 16-17 April 2020 of various United Nations departments, on globalization, cooperation and migration. Alongside cooperation, international communication, thanks to the growing access to the internet, has never been easier or cheaper, which is one of the reasons why it can be said that the current era is also an era of increasing "media visibility" (Ratton Ferreira, 2006, p.
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Agribusiness and agro-industry both involve commercialization and value addition of agricultural and post-production enterprises fungal arthritis in dogs order voltaren 50mg online, and the building of linkages among agricultural enterprises arthritis medication for dogs metacam discount 100 mg voltaren with amex. Large corporations foster environmental consciousness by offering incentives to arthritis in feet toes symptoms buy 50mg voltaren mastercard their suppliers arthritis pain due to weather cheap 50mg voltaren with mastercard. This has resulted in techniques to improve crop yields and seed production" (Nidumolu et al. Many corporations respond to environmental concerns, especially when governments face stagnation of resources. On many occasions the private sector has been offered the opportunity to invest in marketbased instrument and take a leading role in compensation, biodiversity offsets mechanisms (Jenkins et al. Lessening government involvement has led, in some areas, to the transfer of environmental management responsibilities to local or nongovernmental institutions, especially in Latin America (Liverman & Vilas, 2006). The agribusiness sector responds mainly to social concerns by fostering programmes aiming at empowering small farmers to guarantee access to the global market. This report underlined the necessity to provide solidarity and support to small farmers, especially in developing countries, through market-driven projects led by the private sector, rooted in viable business cases, integration of value chains that benefit all the stakeholders, and access to a globally connected market supported by an international network (World Economic Forum, 2016:3). This initiative relies on multi-stakeholder conferences and workshops associating farmers, rural outreach actors, policymakers and private sector leaders and setting objectives for sustainable food production aligned with national objectives. One of the main drivers of such a collaboration is the food security issue; according to which feeding 9 billion people by 2050 requires developing new technologies for improved productivity in a context of land and water scarcity (Godfray et al. To achieve these goals, agribusiness defends the idea of agriculture (including small farming) as a market-driven activity connected to global markets, by providing small farmers seeds, inputs and guaranteed purchase. Bringing benefits to small farmers thanks to technology and access to the market leads major corporations to implement local programmes based on soy, corn, palm oil - both for human and animal food. This initiative was supported by 1200 organisations and signed by 90,000 petitioners (for further details, see en. Working towards transparency and ethical principles the financial power of the research departments within agribusiness companies is quite enormous compared to public research funding in agronomy. The facts and data produced by researchers funded, directly or indirectly, by agribusiness companies (Simon, 2015) are in most cases legitimate, but generally focus on unidimensional evidence. Funding for public research generally glosses over areas where private research is perceived to be active. However, conflicts of interest have become an important theme in the scientific literature and community. A recent review of 672 scientific papers about genetically modified organisms (Guillemaud et al. Moreover, technical skills and understanding necessary for a proper use are extremely complex for farmers: studies conducted in Eastern Asia showed that farmers are not fully aware of the risks of using genetically modified seeds with high doses of pesticides on the development of secondary pests (for example on Bt cotton - see Ho et al. The dependency of farmers around the world is accentuated by the increasing concentration of the agricultural sector. Advertisements rarely mention actual facts: the information about production methods, socio-environmental impact, quality of ingredients, nutritional facts and types of additives is often incomplete or deficient. This tends to create a misperception of the origins and impacts of the food being consumed, thus hampering consumer awareness. Consumers in the lower economic classes are even less aware of the collateral effects of cheap and low quality food on weight, for instance (Cole et al. When it comes to land degradation, agrochemical and biotechnology industries are partly responsible (see also Chapter 4, Section 4. Moreover, greater complications come from the fact that degradation induced by the agrochemical industry or other market forces can apply to different levels of biodiversity: the level of landscape and field (ecosystem diversity), the level of specific biodiversity or genetic diversity. Ecosystem diversity is strongly affected by open-field monocultures based on mechanization and heavy chemical inputs. Regarding fertilizers, Reganold and Glover (2016) assert that soils in many regions across Sub-Saharan Africa are depleted to the extent that simply adding fertilizer will not improve soil health and may even make it worse (see also Box 2. However, remaining practices such as information retention based on incomprehensive or loose legislations tend to mislead consumers. This section begins with a summary of the concepts brought out in successive Earth Summits and the logic underlying international negotiations. Understanding what appears as political inertia (Brand & Gцrg, 2013) is central to shifting away from policies that aim to slow down degradation to implementing policies that seek to reverse it. The conference was meant to raise global environmental concern and initiate a global eco-management strategy; and in practice, it catalysed an inflexion in environmental policies (White, 1982). The discussions in the Summit mostly revolved around development versus environment (Caldwell, 1972; Robinson, 1972; Rowland, 1973).